Tuesday, October 16, 2018

Dalai Lama Meets with Students in India

Conversation with Students from Woodstock School

Thekchen Chöling, Dharamsala, HP, India - The happy chatter that filled the meeting room next to His Holiness the Dalai Lama’s office fell silent when he walked into the room and scanned the faces of the students waiting for him. He smiled broadly, wished them “Good morning”, and sat down. There were 51 students belonging to classes 11 and 12 from Woodstock School, who are visiting Dharamsala during their extra-curricular ‘activity week’. His Holiness first made friends with Woodstock School at the beginning of his life in exile when he lived in Mussoorie, the hill-station where the school is based.

After asking how many Tibetans and Bhutanese there were in the group, His Holiness wanted to know where the rest of the students came from. The majority were Indian, but among a total of seven nationalities there were also students from Palestine, Syria and Afghanistan.

His Holiness reported that he had just been talking to a group from Indonesia about how sad he feels to witness friction between Shia and Sunni Muslims. To him it is unthinkable that people who worship the same Allah and follow the same Quran should fall out as they seem to do.

“However, I’ve never heard of such quarrels between Sunni and Shia adherents here in India,” he told them. “Indeed India is unique in that all the world’s major religions, those indigenous to the country, as well as those that came from abroad, all live here happily together. India’s long-standing tradition of inter-religious harmony is exemplary and now the time has come to share this practice with the rest of the world.”

The first of several questions from the students concerned His Holiness’s pastimes.

“When I was a boy I used to enjoy taking things apart,” he replied with a laugh, “I examined my toys and watches to see how they worked. I dismantled and reassembled a movie projector that had belonged to the 13th Dalai Lama to make it work. Since I was young I’ve also enjoyed growing plants. I grew beautiful tulips in the Norbulingka garden in Lhasa. These days, however, as I get older, I have less interest in these things.”

Another student wanted to know who decides what’s moral. His Holiness told her that all the world’s major religions teach about love, compassion, tolerance and self-discipline. Some traditions, like Judaism, Christianity and Islam, believe in a creator God and regard us all as children of that God. Other Indian traditions like Jainism and Buddhism see beings themselves participating in creation, so responsibility for change rests on our shoulders.

“We should not let ourselves be dominated only by sensory awareness,” His Holiness advised, “we should also pay attention to mental consciousness, develop a single-pointed mind and use it to analyse the nature of self and the nature of reality.

“What we experience is the result of our own actions. If it brings joy, we regard what we’ve done as positive; if it leads to misery we think of our action as negative. Just as we can’t say that one particular medicine is the best on all occasions, we cannot say that one religious tradition is best. We need our different traditions because of people’s different dispositions and therefore we need to treat all religious traditions with respect.

“Many problems we face we bring on ourselves because we are prey to destructive emotions. We tend to think in terms of ‘us’ and ‘them’ with little sense of the oneness of humanity. And yet, climate change, for example, because it affects us all, means we have to take a more global view. We can’t neglect it. We are interdependent. Consider how Tibet and its rivers are the source of much of Asia’s water. But snowfall has been drastically reduced as a result of global warming.”

His Holiness told a student who asked how to overcome apathy and be more inspired that there’s a need to improve our education systems. We’re used to instructions about observing physical hygiene to preserve our health, but we need to add to it a sense of emotional hygiene. This means learning to tackle destructive emotions like anger, fear and hatred. By training our minds, rather than turning to drugs or alcohol, we can change our emotions.”

Ancient Indian psychology has much to say about this and although he says modern India is quite materialistic, His Holiness considers India to be the only country that could pioneer a combination of modern education with ancient Indian understanding of the workings of the mind and emotions

Asked if he’d ever had doubts about the Buddha’s teachings, His Holiness replied that the Buddha advised his followers not to take what he taught at face value but to question and investigate it. Consequently, Buddhism in general and the Nalanda Tradition in particular take a realistic approach grounded in reason and logic. He explained that it’s on such a basis that he has been able to engage in dialogue with scientists for almost forty years.

“Nalanda University is now in ruins, but the traditions of study that flourished there Shantarakshita established in Tibet in 8th century. He was a great scholar and logician, as well as a pure monk, and we have kept alive what he taught us.”

Before the meeting came to an end, His Holiness drew a distinction between the generations of the 20th and 21st centuries. “I belong to the 20th century, a time that has gone. You, however, all belong to the 21st century and you need to think about how to avoid repeating the errors of the past. Where the 20th century was filled with violent conflict, there is now a need to disarm.

“At a meeting of Nobel Peace Laureates in Rome several years ago, we discussed the importance of eliminating nuclear weapons. I suggested that just talking about it isn’t enough. We need to set a timetable and stick to it. I believe it can be done because in general people are fed up with violence.

“In addition to eliminating nuclear weapons, we need a broader sense of demilitarization. Key to this is making the determination to resolve conflict and other problems through dialogue. Following such steps, you who belong to the 21st century have the opportunity to build a better, more peaceful world. Thank you.”

The students posed eagerly for photographs with His Holiness, following which he walked back to his residence for lunch.     

original link & photos: https://www.dalailama.com/news/2018/conversation-with-students-from-woodstock-school

Tuesday, October 9, 2018

Dalai Lama Teaches the Middle Way

Teaching of Chandrakirti’s ‘Entering into the Middle Way’ Resumes

Thekchen Chöling, Dharamsala, HP, India - The majestic Dhauladhar Mountains stood resolute against the clear blue, post-monsoon sky as His Holiness the Dalai Lama walked from his residence to the Tsuglagkhang, the main Tibetan temple, this morning. The temple yard was thronged with people eager to see him, smiles on their faces and hands folded in welcome. Inside the temple His Holiness waved to the crowd, greeted the Lamas seated around the throne and took his seat.

Among the 6500 people in attendance, 1000 were Taiwanese, most of them belonging to 18 cultural organizations participating in the International Association of Tibetan Buddhist Dharma, Taiwan. In addition, there were 500 Indians, 1800 people from 66 countries abroad and 3200 Tibetans.

Monks from Thailand made an auspicious beginning to the proceedings as they recited the Mangala Sutta in Pali. Taiwanese disciples then chanted the Heart Sutra in Chinese. His Holiness completed the preliminary formalities by reciting the verses of salutation to the Buddha from ‘Ornament for Clear Realization’ and Nagarjuna’s ‘Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle Way’. He welcomed everyone in the audience:

“Those of you from Taiwan have been coming for many years now and today there are people from many other places too—I greet you all. I’m going to begin with an introduction to the teachings of the Buddha. Many of you may be familiar with it, but there may also be some who haven’t heard it before.

“The following verse sums up the Buddha’s advice:

“Commit no unwholesome deed,
Perform only perfect virtue,
Completely tame your mind,
This is the teaching of the Buddha.

“All religions teach us not to do harm, but to have a kind heart. There are theistic traditions that believe in a creator god and non-theistic traditions that teach about karma. All of them encourage us to help others not harm them.

“How do you tame your mind? The Buddhas do not wash unwholesome deeds away with water, nor do they remove beings’ sufferings with their hands and they do not transplant their own realization into others. It is by teaching the truth of suchness that they liberate beings.

“A rich tradition of philosophy and psychology already existed in India at the time of the Buddha. A general belief in past and future lives was supported by the reports of individuals who had memories of their previous lives. Since the body doesn’t travel from one life to another, the question was what does? Many schools of thought posited a self separate from the mind/body combination that they called atman. Taming the mind relied on training in ethics and concentration on the basis of which wisdom could be cultivated.

“Many Indian spiritual practitioners aspired to transcend the desire realm and the attachment it involves, which they considered fraught with problems. Through meditative absorption they sought to reach the subtler and more peaceful form and formless realms.

“Born into a royal family, the Buddha renounced his comfortable way of life when he realized the suffering involved in birth, sickness, aging and death. He entered instead into the homeless life of an ascetic. As a result of his cultivating ethics and concentration he recognised that far from there being a single, autonomous, permanent self, the self is merely a designation. He further acknowledged that belief in a single, autonomous, permanent self reinforces clinging to it. There is a notion of a self that functions like a master over the other aspects of the mind/body combination, which operate like its servants. Therefore, the self is seen as separate from the mind/body combination.

“In his enlightenment the Buddha realized a sense of selflessness diametrically opposed to the idea of a single, autonomous, permanent self. Therefore, he is reported to have reflected, ‘Profound and peaceful, free from complexity, uncompounded luminosity—I have found a nectar-like Dharma. Yet if I were to teach it, no-one would understand what I said, so I shall remain silent here in the forest.’

His Holiness explained that when, in due course, the Buddha encountered his five former companions in the Deer Park outside Varanasi, they recognised a change in his demeanour and asked him to teach what he had realized. Consequently he taught them the Four Noble Truths—the truth of suffering, the truth of its origin, the truth of its cessation and the truth of the path to that. In terms of what they needed to do, he explained that suffering must be known; its origin must be overcome; its cessation must be achieved and the path to it must be cultivated.

However, in terms of a result, he clarified that although suffering must be known, there is nothing to be known. Though its origin must be overcome, there is nothing to overcome. While cessation must be achieved, there is nothing to be achieved and despite the need to cultivate the path, there is nothing to be cultivated.

His Holiness observed that the Buddha identified 16 characteristics of the Four Noble Truths, four pertaining to each truth. The four characteristics of the truth of suffering are that it is impermanent, in the nature of suffering, empty and selfless. His Holiness made clear that on one level we can understand impermanence to mean that life ends in death. At a subtler level this means that things arise, abide, decay and end in destruction. Subtler still is the understanding that the disintegration of a phenomenon is brought about by its very cause. Thus, change to our psycho-physical aggregates, our mind/body combination, derives from their cause which is karma and mental afflictions.

“What is important to recognise” His Holiness went on, “is that suffering is rooted in ignorance. We will not overcome it until we counter the ignorance that is a distorted view of reality. We remain subject to that ignorance so long as we think of the ‘I’ as an independent self. Yet when we search for such a self as an entity independent of the mind/body combination, we find nothing. We cannot find such a self among the five psycho-physical aggregates that make up the mind/body combination, nor can it be identified with consciousness.

“Just as cart is designated on the basis of its parts, so a person is designated on the basis of the psycho-physical aggregates. Nagarjuna explains that cessation comes about through the elimination of karma and mental afflictions. Karma and afflictions arise from conceptual thoughts, which come from mental exaggeration or fabrication.

Fabrication ceases through (understanding) emptiness. We can gain experience of emptiness if we make a steady effort. If we read Nagarjuna and his followers’ works we can see how they thoroughly explain that there is no independent self.

“The defilements of the mind associated with a distorted view of reality are not of the mind’s intrinsic nature because the nature of the mind is clarity and awareness. Cessation is that state of mind in which the defilements have been overcome. Therefore, liberation is attained by thoroughly purifying the mind.”

In responding to questions from the audience His Holiness discussed which is realized first, the selflessness of persons or the selflessness of phenomena. He quoted Nagarjuna’s ‘Precious Garland’ that says that as long as there is grasping for the psycho-physical aggregates, there is grasping for a self of persons. However, in his medium and great presentations of the ‘Stages of the Path’, Je Tsongkhapa presents the selflessness of persons first and the selflessness of phenomena later. His Holiness remarked that since the Buddha was thorough in his teachings, we need to be thorough in our studies.

“I first heard about emptiness 70 years ago, but I’ve been thinking about it for 60 years,” His Holiness recalled. “It’s good to be curious. As a child when I saw different insects I wanted to know where they came from. I also wanted to know why there are so many different kinds of flowers. For the last 50 years, I’ve also given deep thought to the awakening mind of bodhichitta. Today, I heard a report that elderly people are increasingly experiencing loneliness, which reminded me that if you cultivate compassion and bodhichitta you’ll never feel lonely.”

His Holiness concluded that in addition to the need to completely tame the mind it is also necessary to sustain the body and it had reached time for lunch. He will continue his teachings tomorrow morning.

Original link & photos: https://www.dalailama.com/news/2018/teaching-of-chandrakirtis-entering-into-the-middle-way-resumes

Tuesday, October 2, 2018

Dalai Lama on Human Values & Education

‘Human Values and Education’ at Zurich University of Applied Sciences

Zurich, Switzerland - There was a chill in the air as His Holiness the Dalai Lama left his hotel to drive to Winterthur this morning. When he arrived at the Conference Centre he was received by Jean-Marc Piveteau, President of ZHAW University (Zurich University of Applied Sciences). Once His Holiness had sat down on the stage in the auditorium, Piveteau introduced the occasion. “We’re talking about tolerance, justice and freedom because it’s important to be aware of human values. A university is about more than just earning a degree, it’s about ideas and values and a commitment to responsibility. For us, Your Holiness, you represent many of these values and we’d like to hear from you.’

“Dear brothers and sisters,” His Holiness responded, “when I see a human face, I think, ‘O, another human brother or sister’. We focus too much on secondary differences between us—differences of community, religion, religious denomination, whether people are rich or poor—which gives rise to a sense of ‘us’ and ‘them’. In today’s world, besides natural disasters, many of the problems we face are of our own creation. As a result, people are not very happy.

“In the past, the human population was small, and people depended on each other in small communities. Now the population has increased and we make distinctions between this community and that, this country and another. In the 20th century there were two world wars; why? Nowadays, in the Middle East religion has become a cause for people to kill each other. They think in terms of ‘my religion’ and ‘their religion’. Since we create these conflicts, it’s our responsibility to resolve them.

“There are signs of hope; the latter part of the 20th century was different from the earlier years. I’m a great admirer of the spirit of the European Union and the way de Gaulle and Adenauer, after being enemies for long, decided it was better to live together and pursue a common interest. The British seem to be leaving for narrow-minded, selfish reasons.

“There are differences between us, but at a deeper level we are the same in being human. We’re all born the same way and we die the same way. Some scientists say, as a result of their findings with young, pre-verbal infants that basic human nature is compassionate. At the same time, while constant anger, fear and hatred undermine our immune systems, peace of mind is good for our health.

“As human beings we are social animals. We survive in dependence on our community. In Barcelona, I met a Catholic monk who had been living as a hermit in the mountain mediating on love. He lived on bread and tea and was truly happy, but even he depended on the support of the local community.

“We need friends and friendship is based on trust. To earn trust, money and power aren’t enough; you have to show some concern for others. You can’t buy trust in the supermarket. In ancient times, you Swiss and we Tibetans may have been satisfied behind our mountains, but today human beings belong to one human community. Therefore, we have to integrate and since we are interdependent we have to show some global responsibility.

“If they believe we were all made by God, or if they simply believe in karma, that positive action give rise to happiness and harmful behaviour leads to sorrow, how can people kill each other? We need to think about peace of mind. About 200 years ago the church looked after inner values along with education. Today, inner values need to be incorporated into education, not on the basis of this religion or that, but from a secular point of view.

“And just as we teach physical hygiene to stay physically fit, we need to cultivate emotional hygiene, learning to tackle our destructive emotions, to achieve peace of mind. Wherever I am, I share these ideas with whoever wants to listen—was it clear?”

The room was filled with warm applause.

Moderator of the panel discussion, Swiss TV anchor Susanne Wille introduced the members of the panel: Dr. Christiane Hohenstein, Professor of Inter-Culturalism and Linguistics; Dr. Andreas Gerber-Grote, Professor of Public Health and Head of Research; Leanardo Huber, President of the Students' Association; and Dr. Rudolf Högger, Tibet-Institute Rikon.

She started the discussions by asking His Holiness if it was true that he was a lazy student. He replied that it was only natural. In Tibet education begins with memorization and at the age of seven he began to learn classical texts by heart and didn’t enjoy it very much. It wasn’t until he was older that he began to take an interest in what he was learning. When he was 16, he told her, he lost his freedom and when he was 24 he lost his country, but by that time he had discovered that what he’d learned before helped him keep his inner strength.

The panel discussion touched on self-discipline, listening to the other person’s point of view and sustainability. Dr Högger showed a picture of Tibetan monks in their monastery being taught to dissect fish. They took them apart, organ by organ, eventually lifting out the brain and spinal cord. At that point one of the students asked the teacher “Is this where consciousness begins?” She replied that Western science asserts that without such a basis there can be no consciousness. It was a moment when modern science and Buddhist science acknowledged their different approaches.

Dr Hohenstein remarked that she wasn’t sure that universal human values exist yet, but that we should be prepared to change our stance or perspective. She observed that, given the continuing gender gap, equality is some way off. His Holiness explained that it is his understanding that early human beings gathered and shared what they needed. Only after they took up agriculture and began to stake claims to property was there a need for leadership. Since the criterion to be a leader was physical strength a male dominance emerged. Education has helped address that inequality to some extent, but there remains a need to work to improve equality by overturning entrenched customs and habits of mind.

With regard to the question of universal human values in relation to investment banking, Leanardo Huber suggested that corporate responsibility would be a start, but, he added these are things that need to be talked about. His Holiness remarked that a materialistic way of life has materialistic goals, but we also have to ask what consciousness is. He recounted discussing this with Russian scientists who would not accept the notion of mental consciousness, dismissing it as a religious idea. He mentioned the value of ancient Indian psychology and its methods for training the mind through meditation. Today, the discovery of neuroplasticity has shown that meditative practice can change the brain.

“People are used only to considering sensory sources of pleasure and joy; little attention is paid to the mind. In Tibet, following the traditions of India’s Nalanda University we make extensive use of analytical meditation; always asking why? why? why? If we come across an explanation that contradicts reason, we reject it.”

Answering a few questions from the audience, His Holiness suggested that children can be trained with love and affection to learn to manage their emotions. He expressed doubt that artificial intelligence will ever fully replicate the sophistication of the human mind that designed it in the first place.

Asked how to find peace of mind, he replied that first you need to value it. You need to understand how emotions like anger and hatred are unhelpful because they disturb it, whereas cultivating their opposite, compassion, strengthens peace of mind. He pointed out that destructive emotions are rooted in a distorted view of reality. He quoted Aaron Beck, an American psychiatrist with long experience working with people troubled by anger, who told him that when people are angry, the object of their anger seems to be completely negative, but this is 90% mental projection.

He added that it useful to know that emotions do not belong to the nature of the mind. The mind is clear like water, but also like water it can become clouded by emotions. The natural clarity of the mind was something he stressed.

Moderator Susanne Wille asked the panel for one idea they were going to take away from the discussion. Dr Högger mentioned self-responsibility and the need for personal change. For Dr Hohenstein it was the idea of emotional hygiene and not focussing on secondary differences. Dr Gerber-Grote voiced an appreciation for empathy and Leanardo Huber said he was intrigued by the idea of analytical meditation.

Jean-Marc Piveteau expressed thanks to His Holiness and the other members of the panel on behalf of ZHAW University. Dr Karma Dolma Lobsang, on behalf of Tibet-Institute Rikon, also expressed gratitude, noting that this was the fourth and last event of the celebrations of the Tibet-Institute’s 50th anniversary. She wished His Holiness a long life, safe travels and told him that these days with him would not be forgotten. Once more, warm applause filled the hall.

His Holiness and the panellists were invited to lunch by the University. Afterwards His Holiness left for Berne, from where he will fly to India tomorrow.

original link & photos: https://www.dalailama.com/news/2018/human-values-and-education-at-zurich-university-of-applied-sciences

Tuesday, September 25, 2018

The Dalai Lama on Happiness & Responsibility

Happiness and Responsibility
September 20, 2018

Zurich, Switzerland - This morning, leaving the tranquillity of Darmstadt, where the bicycle is a favoured mode of transport, His Holiness the Dalai Lama was driven rapidly to Heidelberg. Reaching this picturesque city on the River Neckar he was taken directly to the City Hall where he was received by Mayor Wolfgang Erichson. After greeting well-wishers gathered on the pavement, His Holiness turned to wave to people watching from surrounding windows.

Inside City Hall His Holiness was given an official welcome and invited to sign the Golden Book inscribed by honoured visitors to the city. This was followed by an exchange of gifts. As His Holiness entered the auditorium and took the stage he received warm applause from the 1500 people in the audience.

In his welcoming speech Mayor Wolfgang Erichson extolled the virtues of the beautiful city of Heidelberg. The University of Heidelberg attracts an open-minded student body and is among the 50 top universities in the world. People from 160 nations live in the city, which sees diversity not as a threat but an asset. The Mayor noted that it is possible to learn how cultivate and achieve happiness and he was pleased to report that at least one pioneering school in the city is teaching just that.

During a short musical interlude a wind and string quintet played a delightful piece by Mozart.

Director of the German American Institute, Jakob Kollhofer told His Holiness it was a great honour to welcome him to Heidelberg, describing him as living reminder of peace and compassion, known for his warm smile. He observed that His Holiness has been a refugee for 60 years during which time his appearance and conduct have been consistent. Welcoming him to a festival of science in what has come to be known as a city of science, Kollhofer invited His Holiness to share his thoughts about happiness and responsibility.

“Good morning, dear brothers and sisters. I make a point of clarifying that the 7 billion human beings living on this planet today are emotionally, mentally and physically the same. We all want to live a happy life and don’t want to suffer. We have a marvellous brain which is very helpful when it comes to analysing and investigating reality. Our intelligence can bring us peace of mind, or it can destroy it. Using our intelligence to understand moral principles we can learn to cultivate warm-heartedness and infinite altruism.

“As scientists have discovered, basic human nature is compassionate. Our mother gave birth to us, then cared for us with maximum affection. If she’d neglected us instead, we would likely have died.

“Anger and fear undermine our immune system, while warm-heartedness brings peace of mind. Therefore, just as we teach children to comply with physical hygiene for the good of their health, we should also counsel them in a kind of hygiene of the emotions. If they are to be both physically and mentally fit, they need to know how to tackle negative emotions and maintain their peace of mind. And to tackle the emotions it’s useful to have something like a map of the emotions, a map of the mind.

“This is something we can learn from research conducted in ancient India through meditative practices to cultivate single-pointed concentration and analysis. The Buddha practised both, and although these practices are described in religious literature, they can be examined and employed in an academic context.

“I am a student of such ancient Indian knowledge as preserved in the Nalanda Tradition, which relies on reason and logic. The great Nalanda scholar Shantarakshita, who was invited to Tibet by the Emperor in the 8th century, established a mode of Buddhist training and practice in which reason and logic play an integral part.

“After I came to India I had opportunities to meet and hold discussions with scientists. I was inspired by the Buddha’s advice not to accept what he taught on the basis of faith alone, but to test and investigate it through reason. Consequently, the dialogue I’ve been conducting with scientists for more than thirty years has been mutually beneficial.”

Kollhofer introduced three scientists to take part in discussions with His Holiness this morning—neurobiologist Dr Hannah Monyer, gerontologist Dr Andreas Kruse, and astrophysicist Dr Matthias Bartelman.

Dr Monyer raised something she sees as a problem. “You emphasise that we are social animals and we are, but we are not so different from rats. Like them human beings naturally prefer to help members of their close family rather than others.”

“We are intelligent,” His Holiness replied, “we have seed of compassion from birth. Using reason and intelligence we can enhance our sense of compassion and come to understand how its opposite, anger, is harmful. Our biological compassionate instincts tend to be coloured by attachment. Such a biased attitude cannot be transformed into great compassion. That’s why we first develop equanimity. We can learn to extend loving kindness to the whole of humanity.

“One thing that needs to be clearly understood is that both compassion and anger are part of the mind, they belong to our mental consciousness. Some consciousnesses depend on our sense organs. In the dream state, the sense organs are dormant. In deep sleep, consciousness is subtler, while the subtlest consciousness manifests at the time of death, unrelated to the brain.”

“That’s a dualistic view,” was Dr Monyer’s response.

“In the early 20th century scientists considered consciousness was entirely dependent on the brain,” reported His Holiness. By the end of the century, neuroplasticity showed that changes in the brain could be attributed to changes in consciousness.”

Dr Matthias Bartelman asked if humility was important in the study of science. His Holiness answered “Yes”, and went on to discuss how we are all dependent on others; we depend on the community in which we live.

Gerontologist Dr Andreas Kruse told His Holiness he had three questions for him. “Do you think that the link between happiness and responsibility is meaning. His Holiness retorted that this sounded like a philosophical question like ‘why are we here?’ he said the religious answer would either be because it’s God’s will or because of karma.

Dr Kruse reported findings that older people derive meaning from being able to take care of younger members of the family. However, when they suffer degenerative conditions, such as dementia, they are excluded from such activities and younger people feel a responsibility to take care of them. Dr Kruse raised the notion of ‘border situations’ first mooted by Karl Jaspers a German-Swiss psychiatrist and philosopher educated at Heidelberg.

His Holiness retorted that it seemed to be a complicated philosophical observation. Everything is relative; nothing has independent existence. He cited the example of time. “Does time exist? Where is the present when it is always moving on?”

Answering questions from the public His Holiness touched on the need to ensure that the 21st century does not repeat the experience of the 20th century, which was overwhelmingly violent. The 21st century should be an era of dialogue. Problems should be solved by talking them over, not through the use of force.

Challenged to say why he had not intervened in the Rohingya crisis in Burma, he replied that he is an outsider to that conflict. He reported having spoken and written to Aung San Suu Kyi, who could have done more. He counselled Burmese Buddhists when moved by anger to recall the face of the Buddha.

Kollhofer brought the session to an end telling His Holiness that everyone listening had been inspired by what he told them. He thanked him once again for coming to Heidelberg. His Holiness responded, “To bring about a happier, more peaceful world, we have to start on an individual level. Change begins with individuals and spreads out into the community.”

His Holiness was invited to lunch in the vaulted foyer of the City Hall at the end of which he drove to Mannheim from where he flew to Zurich. Tibetans had mounted a traditional welcome outside the hotel, whose driveway was lined with Tibetan flags. There were Tashi Shölpa dancers and Tibetan youngsters offering the ‘Chema Changpu’.

His Holiness interacted with all who had come to greet him, happily spotting several old friends among them. In the lobby he was greeted by the Abbot, President, and Director of the Tibet Institute Rikon as well as other monks and Lamas.

Original link & photos: https://www.dalailama.com/news/2018/happiness-and-responsibility

Tuesday, September 18, 2018

Dalai Lama on Eight Verses for Training the Mind

‘Eight Verses for Training the Mind’

When His Holiness the Dalai Lama met six Dutch Parliamentarians this morning he was swift to tell them how much he appreciates their concern for Tibet. As time goes on more and more people come to appreciate that Tibetan culture is sophisticated and useful, while it is being steadily destroyed in Tibet. He pointed out that Tibet has always been politically significant as a buffer between India and China.

“We’re not seeking independence because it would likely be difficult to achieve, but if we did, we would remain poor. Tibetans are no more averse to prosperity than anyone else. If we remain with the People’s Republic of China (PRC) we can benefit from China’s powerful economy.

“The Chinese constitution recognises various Tibetan areas and we should have the freedom to preserve our language and culture in those regions. We can work together, the Chinese can provide us with material benefit, and we can offer them spiritual support. I greatly admire the spirit of the European Union which gives more importance to the common good than narrow national sovereignty. We could enter into a similar union with China.

“Historically Tibet was an independent state. Chinese documents record the existence in the 7th, 8th and 9th centuries of three independent empires—China, Mongolia and Tibet. Subsequently, no Chinese records from the Tang dynasty until the Manchu dynasty refer to Tibet as part of China. However, the past is past and I note that members of the European Union remain sovereign states.

“In 1951 we raised the issue of Tibet at the UN—nothing happened. Again in 1959 and 1965 we appealed to the world body over India’s objections, but again nothing happened. Pandit Nehru told me that the USA would not go to war with China to liberate Tibet. He said we could only talk to the Chinese authorities. On one occasion he came to see me, bringing a copy of the 17 Point Agreement that refers to ‘the peaceful liberation of Tibet’ and pointed out which points we could usefully discuss.

“In 1956 Nehru insisted I return to Tibet after visiting India and I did. I tried to accommodate Chinese demands until the situation ran out of control. 6 million Tibetans are tough. The Chinese have used all kinds of means to crush the Tibetan spirit without success. Meanwhile, 340,000 have been killed, died of starvation or committed suicide.

“To begin with there was no racial animosity involved, but that changed after 1959 as tensions grew between Tibetans and Han. Throughout, Tibetan spirits remained strong. Now, it seems Chinese leaders can see that their policy of suppression has failed, so they are beginning to take a more realistic approach. Indeed, the Tibetan issue will not just go away until they address it realistically. It seems top leaders have started to realise it doesn’t help them to push the Dalai Lama away—we’ll see.”

One of the Parliamentarians asked how educational systems could be made less materialistically oriented and His Holiness told him he thought it was more important to inculcate inner values and explain how to cultivate peace of mind. It should be possible for education to enhance the positive qualities students have from birth.

“Peace will only be established on the basis of individuals achieving peace of mind. Peace will not be achieved through anger or the use of weapons. We’ve already seen enough violence in the world; the 21st century should be an era of peace—a smile giving rise to a smiling response.”

Back in the Ahoy Arena for a second day, Paula de Wijs welcomed His Holiness, the members of the Sangha and everyone else in the hall. “Compassion is discussed in all religious traditions,” she said, “not just Buddhism. Everyone needs compassion, so these teachings will be useful for all of us. They will be an inspiration.”

His Holiness took up the theme. “Today, I’ll be teaching this small text, the ‘Eight Verses for Training the Mind’, which is mainly about altruism. As Paula has just said, everyone can find it useful, not just Buddhists. Whether you’re Jewish, Christian or Muslim, genuine practitioners all value the practice of loving kindness. Sometimes if the book we’re looking at is thick it can become boring, but this one is small enough to slip into your pocket. I received this teaching when I was about 15 or 16 years old. I memorized the text, recite it daily and have found it useful.

“First of all I’ll go over the basic structure of the dharma. Buddhism is one of the major spiritual traditions to originate in India. Like Jainism and one of the branches of the Samkhya School, there is no place for a creator god. The founders of these traditions, such as Mahavira and the Buddha, were human beings who attained enlightenment. They employed practices prevalent in India such as methods for cultivating a calmly abiding mind and special insight (shamatha and vipashyana). In the case of the Buddha, as he delved deeper into the nature of the mind and investigated the nature of self, he concluded that there was no self independent of the body/mind combination.

“The sutras say if you search for the self it turns out to be just a view. There is nothing more than the body/mind combination. Just as we see a combination of parts as a cart, so the conventional self is based on the body/mind combination—there is no independent self. In his ‘Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle Way’ Nagarjuna says:

“Through the elimination of karma and disturbing emotions there is cessation.
Karma and affliction come from conceptual thought.
These come from mental exaggeration or fabrication.
Fabrication ceases through emptiness.

“And in his ‘400 Verses’ Aryadeva states:

“As the tactile sense [pervades] the body
Confusion is present in all [disturbing emotions].
By overcoming confusion you will also
Overcome all disturbing emotions.

"To overcome this ignorance requires making an effort to understand dependent origination."

His Holiness remarked that after attaining enlightenment the Buddha expressed a reluctance to teach. He is quoted as saying:

Profound and peaceful, free from complexity, uncompounded luminosity-
I have found a nectar-like Dharma.
Yet if I were to teach it, no-one would understand,
So I shall remain silent here in the forest.

Here, ‘profound and peaceful’ can refer to the cause and effect of suffering and its origin within the cycle of existence, as well as the cause and effect of cessation and the path that are factors of liberation—in other words the Four Noble Truths of the first turning of the wheel of dharma. ‘Free from complexity’ refers to emptiness and the Perfection of Wisdom teachings of the second turning of the wheel. ‘Uncompounded luminosity’ refers to the subjective clear light explained in the third turning of the wheel. This subjective mind of clear light is essential to Highest Yoga Tantra.

“In this first statement after attaining enlightenment, the Buddha refers to what he would teach in the future. Subsequently, at the request of his disciple Kaundinya and non-human agents he did teach. The first teaching that took place in the Deer Park outside Varanasi entailed an explanation of the Four Noble Truths. The cause and effect of suffering and its origin is described as afflictive cause and effect, while the cause and effect of cessation and the path is non-afflictive cause and effect.

“Each of the Four Noble Truths can be understood in relation to four characteristics. The truth of suffering, for example, can be understood as being impermanent, in the nature of suffering, empty and selfless. The characteristics of the truth of the cause of suffering are causes, origin, strong production and recurrence. The truth of cessation can be understood in terms of cessation, pacification, being superb and definite release, while the truth of the path is characterized in terms of path, awareness, achievement and deliverance. Reflecting on these is a powerful practice.

“No matter how strong afflictive emotions may be,” His Holiness remarked, “so long as they are rooted in a distorted view of reality they have no solid support and can be removed.”

His Holiness observed that ignorance and wisdom are states of mind that are opposed to each other. Just as when there is light, darkness is gone, so the wisdom of no-self and emptiness utterly uproot ignorance. The Perfection of Wisdom teachings explain the Four Noble Truths thoroughly, especially the truth of cessation and the truth of the path. Nagarjuna says it’s by understanding dependent arising that we really come to grips with the Four Noble Truths.

When the Heart Sutra says, ‘Form is empty; emptiness is form. Emptiness is not other than form; form also is not other than emptiness,’ it is not asserting that nothing exists; rather that things don’t exist as they appear. Form exists, but only as a designation. Aspects of the mind too only exist by way of designation. Nagarjuna asserts that the Buddha taught:

That which is dependent origination
Is explained to be emptiness.
That, being a dependent designation,
Is itself the middle way.

There does not exist anything
That is not dependently arisen.
Therefore there does not exist anything
That is not empty.

If you understand this, you will understand the importance of the Two Truths, the conventional reality that things exist, and their ultimate reality in emptiness.

His Holiness went on to discuss the explicit and implicit content of the Perfection of Wisdom teachings as outlined in the ‘Ornament for Clear Realization’ of Maitreya/Asanga. The explicit content is the explanation of emptiness, but what is implicit is the stages of the path. According to the latter, the path begins with the Two Truths, goes on to explore the Four Noble Truths, leading to a proper understanding of the Three Jewels, who the Buddha is, what he taught and the role of the Sangha.

He explained that the style and order of the ‘Lamp for the Path’ that Atisha taught, and which was the pattern for the subsequent Stages of the Path genre, presupposes that readers already have some understanding of the dharma.

In the context of practice, His Holiness referred to the need for high status or a good rebirth in order to be able to keep it up. Nagarjuna’s ‘Precious Garland’ lists sixteen causes of high status. Thirteen are activities to be stopped. Of the ten unwholesome deeds to be avoided, three are physical - killing, stealing and adultery; four are verbal - false, divisive, harsh, and senseless speech; and three are mental - covetousness, harmful intent, and wrong views. Three additional activities to be restrained include drinking alcohol, wrong livelihood and doing harm. There are three further activities to be adopted - respectful giving, honouring the honourable, and love.
Aryadeva advises:

First prevent the demeritorious,
Next prevent [conceptions of] self;
Later prevent views of all kinds.
Whoever knows of this is wise.

Taking up the text of the ‘Eight Verses’, His Holiness began to read. He explained that the first verse highlights how we are all dependent on others and shows how to cultivate the awakening mind. There are two principal methods: the Seven Point Cause and Effect and Equalizing and Exchanging of Self with Others.

The second verse advises regarding others as superior to you. The third counsels being wary of disturbing emotions, while the fourth speaks of the value of holding troublesome beings dear. The fifth verse recommends offering the victory to others, and the sixth recommends seeing enemies as spiritual friends. The seventh verse explicitly expounds the practice of giving and taking in which imagining taking on others' suffering accords with great compassion, while giving happiness in return accords with loving kindness. Referring to this practice as secret indicates that it may not be appropriate for everyone.

Finally, the first two lines of the eighth verse warn against giving in to the eight worldly concerns for praise and blame and so forth. Noting that the last two lines refer to seeing all things as like an illusion, His Holiness mentioned that you don’t have to be a Buddhist to understand emptiness.

“Training the mind makes a difference,” he declared. “Until I was about 13 years old, I had little interest in what I was studying. Gradually I developed an appreciation that it could be useful. After I reached India I reviewed what I had studied before, but my target was now the attainment of enlightenment not just passing an exam. I’ve found that trying to understand emptiness and extending a sense of altruism has the effect of loosening the grip of self-centredness. I believe that if I have benefited from doing this, if you study and practise, you can benefit from it too.”

For the Dalai Lama Foundation, Reinier Tilanus announced that 21,000 people had participated in the public talk and teachings, 400,000 had viewed the live stream and 250 volunteers had been of great help. The account for the last three days’ events in the Netherlands had produced a surplus of 70,000 Euros. His Holiness requested that 20,000 be donated to supporting teaching Tibetan language to Tibetan children in the Netherlands. The balance will be donated to the work being developed at Emory University to promote social, emotional, and ethical development.

original link & photos: https://www.dalailama.com/news/2018/eight-verses-for-training-the-mind

Thursday, September 13, 2018

The Foundation of the Atonement: Propitiation and Penal Substitution

By Reverend Mark Hunnemann

We need to fix in our minds that the atonement was an objective, historical event that first, made a change in God, and then (as a consequence) in our relationship to Him. Penal (relating to penalty) substitution means that Christ bore in substitutionary way, the penalty/punishment for our sin. This was an objective event that occurred outside of us, and is foundation for all the blessings of the atonement that flow to/in us:  reconciliation, ransom, redemption, ect. It must be first seen as God-ward event, satisfying God’s need to deal justly with His wrath towards sin/sinners. (Romans 3:25)

This aspect of the atonement has been, and is, hated by critics as being ‘primitive and obscene’. "How can you preach a wrathful God in our day and age?" Because He IS a wrathful and holy God, in every age. ..and it is a horrible thing to fall into the Hands of a wrathful God.That is because they do not understand: God’s holiness, His wrath, the sinfulness of sin, God’s jealousy, and His desire to see His Name  magnified above all else.  This aspect of the cross makes justification possible.

The cross is about our salvation. What is the number one danger we are saved from by the cross? God Himself—His wrath. “flee from the wrath to come.” If someone casts doubt on propitiation, then they are preaching ‘another gospel’ because this is the heart of the gospel—the good news. Some see hell as ‘Christless eternity’ but He is omnipresent, and His eternal presence as a judge will be the real hellishness of hell.

8 But even if we or an angel from heaven should preach to you a gospel contrary to the one we preached to you, let him be accursed. 9 As we have said before, so now I say again: If anyone is preaching to you a gospel contrary to the one you received, let him be accursed.

10 For am I now seeking the approval of man, or of God? Or am I trying to please man? If I were still trying to please man, I would not be a servant of Christ. (Gal. 1:8-10)

Had you been an eye-witness of this event, the spiritual aspect of cross would not have been self evident—it was hidden from onlookers. Gospels, and especially epistles, explain the theology of cross. God interprets His saving event, but in form of several images to capture full riches of what happened on cross.

What atonement is NOT: payment of ransom to Satan (e.g. Origen)—payment made to God; merely moral influence/heroic theory; moral government. First is wrong, and others are partial truths presented as whole truths. Being re-recycled today.

The suffering experienced on the cross by Jesus:

1. Physical—Mark, crucifixion— 23 And they offered him wine mixed with myrrh, but he did not take it. 24And they crucified him…. (Mark 14)   That is all the text says. To first century audience, that is all that was needed to say…the specifics and horrors of it were well known and observed regularly. Thousands of people were being crucified as capital punishment. But Roman citizens not crucified because it was deemed too awful and undignified way to die.
I don’t think we have to say that Jesus suffered more than anyone, physically….though it was exceedingly awful. Others suffered just as bad, in this regard.

2. Psychological pain: due to bearing our sin was unprecedented—contradicted all He was and hated most deeply. Is. 53:6; 2Cor 5:21; 1 Pet 2:24  (we have no sense of this, multiplied by millions) He himself bore our sins in his body on the tree, that we might die to sin and live to righteousness. By his wounds you have been healed. (1 Peter) 6 All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned—every one—to his own way; and the Lord has laid on him the iniquity of us all.

3. Most painful was propitiation, sacrifice that bears God’s wrath to make God favorable or propitious to us. 4 texts. Mean? Holy anger of God was poured on Christ. Hilasterion/hilasmos Rom 3:25; Heb 2:17; 1 John 2:2; 4:10 He was cursed for us…the lights were turned off.

21 But now the righteousness of God has been manifested apart from the law, although the Law and the Prophets bear witness to it— 22 the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ for all who believe. For there is no distinction: 23 for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, 24 and are justified by his grace as a gift, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus, 25 whom God put forward as a propitiation by his blood, to be received by faith. This was to show God’s righteousness, because in his divine forbearance he had passed over former sins. 26It was to show his righteousness at the present time, so that he might be just and the justifier of the one who has faith in Jesus.

We know a little bit of pain of other person venting anger at us even when innocent, which is difficult, but wrath of infinitely holy God poured out on His Son, wave after wave. Cries out. As the wooden cross has vertical and horizontal dimension, this was vertical part of atonement. It is finished !John 10:17. 17 For this reason the Father loves me, because I lay down my life that I may take it up again. 30 When Jesus had received the sour wine, he said, “It is finished,” and he bowed his head and gave up his spirit. (John 19:30)

Father was satisfied by payment Is 53:11

10 Yet it was the will of the Lord to crush him; he has put him to grief; when his soul makesh an offering for guilt, he shall see his offspring; he shall prolong his days; the will of the Lord shall prosper in his hand.11 Out of the anguish of his soul he shall seei and be satisfied;by his knowledge shall the righteous one, my servant, make many to be accounted righteous, and he shall bear their iniquities.

Abandonment. Father Matt 26: 45 Now from the sixth hour there was darkness over all the landg until the ninth hour.h 46 And about the ninth hour Jesus cried out with a loud voice, saying, “Eli, Eli, lema sabachthani?” that is, “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?”

Why have you forsaken Me? One of the most puzzling, troubling comments in bible. Bearing sin and wrath, Jesus is quoting Ps 22. As a man, not have understood the full extent beforehand—though in garden, He had a clear and horrible sense of it. Touching His human nature, He died. His divine nature could not die-the notion is heretical because God cannot die. Mystery of the Person of Christ as one Person, with two natures. Nobody knows the full meaning of the cry of dereliction on the cross and how it relates to both natures.
( Rom 8:1 result)

Some prominent theologians denying penal substitution in UK and USA.

Washed over liberal lie from 1920 liberalism. No wrath because divine love overcomes it all.
Next steps? Hell is not eternal. Hell gone. All are saved. IVP and Zondervan  have both published books attacking the penal substitution and propitiatory nature of atonement. One man even called it—“divine Child abuse.”

Don’t retreat just because  folks don’t like something. Not understanding, or even liking a doctrine (at least initially), may be good reason to believe it. Wrestling with unsettling truths can be time of accelerated spiritual growth.

God not punish believers but consequences and discipline. (Heb. Loves us…)
Ultimately cross was work of God Father who inflicted suffering, not man (Acts 2 and 4) 53:10 Is. Will we ever understand this? Human analogies fail us. Righteous burning anger poured out on innocent Son. Troubling and awe-inspiring.

Jesus’ blood represents His propitiatory death. We should not think of blood in superstitious way. John Guest once asked, “if Jesus had accidentally cut his finger, would that blood have cleansed people of sin?” Surely not-- because the blood of Jesus that cleanses us and makes demons tremble, is the cross of Christ and His propitiatory death—His penal substitution which was victorious over His enemies. (Col. 2:15) His ‘blood’ is synonymous with His atoning death on the cross—that is why the blood of Christ is often referred to, as ‘shorthand’ for atonement. It signifies His death, as did blood of animal sacrifice in OT signified it had died. The sprinkled blood was evidence that sacrifice had been killed. Need to avoid popular notions that border on superstition regarding Christ’s blood, that are disconnected from His finished work on the cross. It was His death, which the blood signifies, which makes atonement for us—reconciling, redeeming, and ransoming us. “The blood of Jesus” is precious to believers precisely because of all the benefits that His atoning death purchased for us (e.g. peace with God, victory over evil one, bold access to throne of grace, etc).

19 Therefore, brothers, since we have confidence to enter the holy places by the blood of Jesus, 20 by the new and living way that he opened for us through the curtain, that is, through his flesh, 21 and since we have a great priest over the house of God, 22 let us draw near with a true heart in full assurance of faith, with our hearts sprinkled clean from an evil conscience and our bodies washed with pure water Trust Him and be at peace  10:19 think of Jewish person being told they could come boldly into Holy of Holies!!

Blood of Christ? Pouring out ones life/death. Here is proof that sacrifice or death occurred. Evidence of Christ paying price  Rom 3:25 blood/death.

Cleanses conscience 9:14; access to God in worship and prayer 10:19 sees blood or death, 1 John 1:7 cleanses us from ongoing sin. . Rescued from futile ways of life. 1 Peter. 1:18-19

7 Now war arose in heaven, Michael and his angels fighting against the dragon. And the dragon and his angels fought back, 8 but he was defeated, and there was no longer any place for them in heaven. 9 And the great dragon was thrown down, that ancient serpent, who is called the devil and Satan, the deceiver of the whole world—he was thrown down to the earth, and his angels were thrown down with him. 10And I heard a loud voice in heaven, saying, “Now the salvation and the power and the kingdom of our God and the authority of his Christ have come, for the accuser of our brothersb has been thrown down, who accuses them day and night before our God. 11And they have conquered him by the blood of the Lamb and by the word of their testimony, for they loved not their lives even unto death. (Rev 12….Lamb reference to finished work of cross—Lamb of God)

Fix your minds and hearts on the objective, historical nature of the propitiatory atonement.

Mark Hunnemann is the author of Seeing Ghosts Through God's Eyes: A Worldview Analysis of Earthbound Spirits. It's also available in eBook format.

Tuesday, September 11, 2018

Dalai Lama on the Buddhapalita Teachings

Second Set of Buddhapalita Teachings - First Day

Thekchen Chöling, Dharamsala, HP, India - This morning, under skies that are beginning to clear as the monsoon recedes, His Holiness the Dalai Lama walked from his residence to the Tsuglagkhang, smiling, waving and greeting people as he went. An estimated 6000 people awaited him in the Main Temple, its surroundings and in the yard below. Of these, 1200 were from East and South-east Asian countries---Korea, Malaysia, Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia and Singapore, including ordained and lay-people. Of an estimated 1700 people from 71 countries in other parts of the world, the largest contingent was from Israel.

Inside the temple, His Holiness waved to the audience, greeted senior Thai and Korean monks, as well as the Ganden Throne-holder, before taking his seat on the throne. The Mangala Sutta was recited first in Pali by a group of Thai monks, after which the ‘Heart Sutra’ was chanted in Chinese, concluding with the following verse:

May we dispel the three poisons.
And light the lamp of wisdom.
May all obstacles be overcome and
May we engage in the deeds of bodhisattvas.

His Holiness recited verses of salutation to the Buddha from ‘Ornament for Clear Realization’ and Nagarjuna’s ‘Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle Way’.

“Many people have gathered here from East and South-east Asia for this teaching,” he began as he looked out over the audience, “amongst whom are monks from countries who traditionally follow the Pali tradition. I greet you all.

“Now, what I usually talk about, wherever I am in the world, is that I am a human being; just one among many. If the people of the world are happy, I’m happy. When the world is in turmoil, I’m sad. We human beings are all the same in wanting to be happy and not wanting to suffer and yet many of the problems we face are of our own making. We seek happiness in external things without realizing that they don’t help when we have problems within. We need to focus instead on the joy that comes with peace of mind that allows us to remain happy whatever happens.

“At the monastery of Montserrat, near Barcelona, I met a monk who had asked to see me. He had been living the life of a hermit in the mountains, surviving only on tea and bread. I asked him about his practice and he told me he’d been meditating on love. As he said this, I could see from the sparkle in his eyes that, despite renouncing physical comfort, he was full of joy.

“Among Tibetans too there were some imprisoned during the ‘cultural revolution’, who valued the opportunity to do their practice. One who I knew well told me that there were times he felt in danger and I asked him to explain, thinking he meant his life was at risk. Instead he told me there were times he was in danger of losing compassion for his tormentors.

“We have made great physical progress in many areas, but this hasn’t necessarily translated into greater peace of mind. However, scientists have lately found evidence to assert that basic human nature is compassionate, which I take as a sign of hope. Meanwhile they have also found that constant anger, fear and anxiety deplete our immune system.”

His Holiness noted that a mother gave birth to each and every one of us. During our early years we survived due to her kindness. Right from the beginning of our lives the love and affection we received from her empowered us to feel calm and secure. He suggested that the innate sense of love and compassion we have as a result can be strengthened and extended by training.

He reiterated that love and compassion are the root of all happiness as we can see when we compare a poor family, who are happy because they love and care for each other, with a wealthy family who are unhappy because they are full of suspicion.

“Whoever I meet, I think of them as another human being just like me. We are physically, mentally and emotionally the same. If we remember that other people are essentially like us, we won’t view them with hostility. As social animals we are dependent on the community in which we live. While love and compassion bring peace of mind and attract friends to us, anger drives people away. So, not only do I advise others to cultivate these qualities, because they are so important, I try to put them into practice myself.

“As a Buddhist practitioner I invite all sentient beings to be my guests at a feast of happiness. I cultivate the four immeasurable wishes—generating equanimity, love, compassion, and joy towards an immeasurable number of sentient beings—every day. We pray that sentient beings experience no suffering, yet the only beings we can really help directly are the human beings with whom we share this earth. We can only pray for beings in other galaxies and can do little to help the animals, insects and fish around us achieve liberation.”

His Holiness remarked that as a Buddhist practitioner he also seeks to promote inter-religious harmony. He explained that religious traditions are concerned with human behaviour. They convey a common message of love and yet today we hear repeatedly of fighting and killing in the name of religion. He pointed out that here in India over the last 3000 years and more, traditions have emerged that counsel love, compassion, self-discipline and tolerance. They adopt different philosophical positions because people have different dispositions.

“Whether or not you observe religious belief and practice is a personal matter, but if make such a choice it’s better to be sincere about it. If someone follows a religion based on love sincerely, how could they kill in the name of religion?”

During a short comfort break, His Holiness answered several questions from the audience, advising that Chapter Six of ‘Guide to the Bodhisattva’s Way of Life’ gives explicit instructions on how to deal with anger. He also touched on the understanding of the workings of the mind and emotions that has evolved in India in the pursuit of calm abiding (shamatha) and penetrative insight (vipashyana). He stated his belief that in India it should be possible to combine modern education with such ancient knowledge.

His Holiness recalled that Buddhism originated in India and that the Pali tradition spread to Sri Lanka, Thailand, Burma, Laos and Cambodia, where the Vinaya continues to be strictly upheld. The Sanskrit tradition, meanwhile, which was fostered in the universities of Takshashila, Nalanda and Vikramashila spread to China and from there to Korea, Japan and Vietnam. His Holiness mentioned that when the Chinese monk and scholar Xuanzang came to India, Nagabodhi, a disciple of Nagarjuna, was still alive. The Chinese adopted Nagarjuna’s ideas, but not the system of logic and reason that supported them.

In the 8th century, the great scholar, logician and philosopher, Shantarakshita established the Nalanda Tradition in Tibet. From Tibet this approach to study and training spread to Mongolia and the Mongolian Russian Republics. Crucial to this tradition were the Perfection of Wisdom teachings of the second turning of the wheel of dharma that assert that things have no objective existence, contrary to the way they appear to us.

His Holiness cited a resolution the Buddha made shortly after his enlightenment that is recorded in the ‘Extensive Sport Sutra’ (Lalitavistara Sutra):

Profound and peaceful, free from elaboration, uncompounded clear light
I have found a nectar-like Dharma.
Yet if I were to teach it, no one would understand,
So I shall remain silent here in the forest.

His Holiness explained that the first words ‘profound and peaceful’ could be interpreted as referring to the true cessation that was the focus of the first turning of the wheel of dharma. ‘Free from elaboration’ could be seen as referring to what he eventually taught in the second turning of the wheel and ‘uncompounded clear light’ could refer to the third turning of the wheel. The first turning lays the foundation, the second shows that things are free from elaboration and the third reveals Buddha nature.

Taking up Buddhapalita’s commentary, His Holiness mentioned that Buddhapalita was a disciple of Nagarjuna and Aryadeva. He remarked that he had received explanation of this text and Chandrakirti’s ‘Clear Words’ from the former Ganden Throne-holder, Rizong Rinpoche. This text, Buddhapalitavrtti, is an explanatory commentary on Nagarjuna’s ‘Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle Way’. He observed that although monks in Tibetan monastic universities study the commentary, they pay less attention to the root text, ‘Fundamental Wisdom’. Noting that Chapters 18 and 24 are the most important, he recommended that a student might begin by reading Chapter 26 which discusses the Twelve Links of Dependent Arising which in forward and reverse processes show how ignorance binds us in the cycle of existence. To put an end to that, Chapter 18 explains how to overcome karma and mental afflictions, while Chapter 24 reveals how to understand emptiness.

Nagarjuna explains that through the elimination of karma and mental afflictions there is liberation; karma and mental afflictions come from conceptual thoughts and these come from mental fabrications. Fabrication ceases through emptiness. The point is to eliminate distorted views that give rise to mental afflictions.

As Nagarjuna observes elsewhere in ‘Fundamental Wisdom':

There does not exist anything
That is not dependently arisen.
Therefore there does not exist anything
That is not empty.

Having completed Chapter 6 of ‘Buddhapalitavrtti’ last year, His Holiness began to read from Chapter 7, which touches on the characteristics of phenomena and the difficulty of pinpointing the present moment. His Holiness remarked that the different modes of reasoning for demonstrating emptiness such as the Diamond Slivers are all based on dependent arising. In the verse of salutation in ‘Fundamental Wisdom’ Nagarjuna praises the Buddha for teaching dependent arising. Je Tsongkhapa praises the Buddha likewise.

As he brought the morning’s session to an end, His Holiness recounted a dream Je Tsongkhapa had of Nagarjuna and his disciples and how Buddhapalita touched his head with this book. The next day Tsongkhapa realized emptiness on the basis of what he had understood from reading this treatise. His Holiness’s final remark was that it seems as if Buddhapalita, who declared that dependent arising is the main cause for gaining insight into emptiness, received both the explanation and transmission of this doctrine, whereas his co-disciple Bhavaviveka seems only to have been given the transmission.

His Holiness will continue to read and explain ‘Buddhapalitavrtti’ tomorrow.

original link & photos; https://www.dalailama.com/news/2018/second-set-of-buddhapalita-teachings-first-day